A worm gear spindle works by using a worm gear to transmit power from the motor to the spindle shaft. The worm gear consists of a screw-like worm that meshes with a toothed wheel known as the worm wheel. When the worm is rotated by the motor, it turns the worm wheel, which then rotates the spindle shaft.
The advantage of using a worm gear in a spindle is that it provides a high degree of torque multiplication, allowing the spindle to generate high levels of cutting force even at low speeds. The downside of worm gear spindles is that they can be less efficient than other types of spindles, and they can generate more heat due to the friction between the worm and the worm wheel.
Overall, worm gear spindles are best suited for machine tools that require high torque and low speeds, such as threading and hobbing machines, and are less commonly used in applications that require higher speeds or more precise control over speed and acceleration.